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However, many of the jobs in the country's industries require specific training, and this fact contributes to the high unemployment rate. The national identity of Algeria is based on a combination of Berber and Arab cultures. The decision to divorce rests solely with the husband. If there are no children, land and belongings are distributed among other relatives. Algeria also receives aid from various countries that send specialists to help with the development of education, industry, health care, and the military. There also are remnants of the indigenous Berber religion, which has been almost entirely subsumed by Islam. Alternatively, couscous can be served sweet, flavored with honey, cinnamon, or almonds. The Berbers put up resistance, particularly to the edict that both religious and political leaders could only be Arabian. Islamist Challenge in Algeria: A Political History, 1997. In the Berber tradition, loyalty breaks down along the lines of village groupings, or sofs.

Girls now comprise 38 percent of students in the secondary schools, a significant increase from preindependence days, when virtually no females attended schools. In September 1999, Algerians by a large margin passed a referendum proposed by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to stop the seven-year-long conflict. There are no priests or clergy in Islam. Algeria: The Next Fundamentalist State? There are forty-eight provincial courts, one for each wilayat, plus an additional two hundred tribunals spread throughout the country. The strong influence of Islam in all aspects of Algerian life creates a sense of identity that extends beyond national boundaries to include other Arab nations.

One also must remove one's shoes before entering the mosque. During World War I and again in World War II, Algerians were drafted to fight with the French. The center of old cities is the casbah (Arabic for fortress a market of serpentine alleyways and intricate arches where a variety of traditional crafts are sold, from carpets to baskets to pottery. Eid al-Fitr, the final breaking of the Ramadan fast, involves consuming large quantities of foods, sweets, and pastries in particular. It covers a total of 919,595 square miles (2,381,751 square kilometers making it the second largest country in Africa (after Sudan and the eleventh largest in the world. He appoints a prime minister, who appoints a cabinet.

The Agony of Algeria, 1997. Souks are held regularly Algerian farmers in Ain Terzine. After World War II, Algerian leaders demanded Muslim equality in exchange for this service. Despite opposition by both the French colonizers and the Algerian government (who viewed this religion as a threat to the unity of the country there are still some organizations, called brotherhoods, that hold on to their magical practices and ceremonies. Inland from the coast is the High Plateau region, with an elevation of 1,300 to 4,300 feet (396 to 1,311 meters). The Arts and the Humanities Support for the Arts. Because the people feel that they are not represented in the government, many resort to violent action as their only form of political expression.


Public displays of affectiontouching, hand-holding between men and women are rare, but not between members of the same sex. Traditional crafts include knotted and woven carpets made from wool or goat hair; basket-weaving; pottery, silver jewelry; intricate embroidery; and brassware. While the majority of the population who are Arab (or mixed Arab and Berber) identify with the common Algerian culture, the Berber tribes, particularly in the more isolated southern mountainous and desert regions, retain more of the indigenous Berber culture and identity. The majority of Algerian children did not attend school. The first, the Shahada, is profession of faith. Anything that involves leaving the house is taken care of by men, including shopping. In 1977, only 42 percent of the population was literate. Arabic music is tied to the storytelling tradition and often recounts tales of love, honor, and family.

Many of them return home in the summer to see their families. The wilayat are further divided into administrative districts or diaraat, which are themselves broken up into communes. Algerians are known for their hospitality and generosity. 2.7 percent of the total budget. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims refrain from food and drink during the daylight hours. Many Algerian writers draw on both the influence of European literature and the ancient Arabic tradition of storytelling.

By a law passed in 1984, women gained the right to child custody and to their own dowries. The FIS never attained control of the government, however, as Bendjedid was replaced by a military takeover of anti-FIS forces. The Chaouias live in the Aurès Mountains, the M'zabites in the northern Sahara, and the Tuaregs in the desert. During the 1980s, Islamic fundamentalism became an increasingly strong movement, and several times led to riots. Traditional building materials are whitewashed stone or brick, and in older houses, the ceilings and upper parts of the walls are decorated with tiled mosaics. There is a strongly felt divide in Algeria society between the political elite and the majority of the population, who feel largely disenfranchised and powerless. The National Institute of Music revives music, dance, and folklore from the ancient Arabic and Moorish traditions.

Death also is mourned in a larger, more communal way as part of the Islamic New Year's celebration, called Ashura. Algeria's main exports are oil and gas, followed by dates, tobacco, leather goods, vegetables, and phosphates. The highest level for appeals is the supreme court. Over the next four years the French sent almost half a million troops to Algeria. The M'zabites advocate social equality and literacy for men and women within their villages but do not allow the women to leave these confines. Currently 22 percent of the population are farmers, but their production accounts for only 6 percent of the country's economy. The fourth is fasting, which is observed during the month of Ramadan each year, when Muslims abstain from food and drink during the daylight hours. Overpopulation and housing shortages in the cities have created their own health problems, due to poor sanitation and lack of safe drinking water. Ninety-nine percent of Algeria is Sunni Muslim.

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The Chaouia women, while still socially restricted, are thought to have special magical powers, which gives them a slightly higher status. The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylia Mountains east of Algiers. Thirty percent of the labor force is employed by the government; 16 percent in construction and public works; 13 percent in industry; and 5 percent in transportation and communications. It has been controlled since independence by the FLN. At independence, the economy was primarily based on agriculture, although since then other industries have eclipsed the importance of farming. Women's clothing is similar, although more complete in its coverage. However, since independence, the government has made an effort to strengthen the native Berber, Arabic, and Islamic culture by giving money to open handicraft centers and by encouraging the traditional arts of rug-making, pottery, embroidery, and jewelry-making. Girls typically have more duties and chores than boys, who are free to play and spend more time out of doors.

The vast expanse contains not only sand dunes and typical desert life such as snakes, lizards, and foxes, but also oases, which grow date and citrus trees. In 1961 leaders of the FLN met with the French government, and the following year, Algeria finally won its independence. This increased to 57 percent in 1990, with a male literacy rate of 70 percent and a female rate of 45 percent. The Berbers have their own concepts and practices regarding gender, which vary widely among the different groups. However, legal injunctions have not yet manifested themselves to end to the violence. Boumedienne continued but modified Ben Bella's socialist policies, concentrating his efforts on reducing unemployment and illiteracy, decentralizing the government, and taking control of the land back from the French colonizers.

One can buy locally produced meat, fruits, vegetables, and grainsoats, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruitas well as woven rugs, jewelry, baskets, metalwork, and other crafts. In 1959 De Gaulle, who was now president of France, issued a promise of independence to the colony, but the next year proceeded to send troops to restore order. He was head of the government and of the FLN, the country's sole political party. Etiquette Greetings are lengthy and involved, including inquiries into health and family. There is some distrust between the Arabs and the Berbers, which dates back centuries to the conquest of the area by Arab settlers. The governor, or wali, is appointed by the national government, and serves as the primary liaison between local and federal government. In the years since 1971, the government made education free and mandatory for children between ages six and fifteen, and has made an effort to use the education system to define the nation. The port at Algiers is the largest in the country and is an industrial center. During the French regime, Algerian culture was largely suppressed in an attempt by the colonizers to supplant it with their own. This month of fasting is followed by the joyous A rug store in Ghardaia.

Services (trade, transport, and communications) also are important. Family members dress in black. Traditionally, kin groups have lived in close proximity. Laban also is drunk, a mixture of yogurt and water with mint leaves for flavoring. The agricultural industry is plagued by droughts, encroaching desert, poor irrigation, and lack of machinery as well as by government policies that favor industry over farming. It shares certain prophets, traditions, and beliefs with Judaism and Christianity, the main difference being the Muslim belief that Muhammad is the final prophet and the embodiment of God, or Allah. Secular Celebrations New Year's Day, 1 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Commemoration Day (anniversary of the overthrow of Ahmed Ben Bella 19 June; Independence Day, 5 July; Anniversary of the outbreak of the revolution, 1 November. The original language of Algeria was Berber, which has varied dialects throughout the country. Algerian films have recently won accolades, both within the country and abroad.

Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the French resistance against Germany during the war and the leader of France's provisional government after the war, agreed to grant French citizenship to certain select Muslims, an unsatisfactory response that resulted in rising tensions between Algerians and their. The flag is green and white, with a red star and crescent. The Arabs swept across North Africa in the seventh century (during the lifetime of Muhammad, who died in 632 and again in the eleventh century. The Kabyles are the most resistant to government incursion. Virtually all health care facilities and providers are concentrated in the more populous north; most people in rural areas have no access to modern medical care. Traditional instruments are the oud, a stringed instrument similar to the lute; small drums held in the lap; and the rhita, or reed flute. The national dish of Algeria is couscous, steamed semolina wheat served with lamb or chicken, cooked vegetables, and gravy. The choice to write in Arabic or Berber, however, is often an act of national pride, and creates a different audience for the work. It is still legally permissible, although rare, for men to have up to four wives, a code that is laid out in the Qurán (Koran).

The third Pillar, Zakat, is the principle of almsgiving. When the country was under French rule, the colonizers owned the best farmland, while the Algerians were forced to work the less fertile areas. Oran, to the west of Algiers, is the second-biggest city. Arabic and Berber are the languages most spoken in day-to-day life. "Destination Algeria." Lonely Planet, 2000. The government has made an effort to change this by starting specialized training programs. The Chaouias are traditionally the most isolated of all the Berber groups; the only outsiders their villages received were occasional Kabyle traders. The Court of State Security, composed of magistrates and army officers, tries cases involving state security. However, it is still common for Algerian women to have between seven and nine children. The Qurán, rather than any religious leader, is considered the ultimate authority, and holds the answer to any question or dilemma one might have.

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Sometimes the alaston blondi mies katsoo pornoa burnous is plain, or sometimes it is adorned with fancy embroidery, indicating the wealth of the Methods dating back to the Roman era are still employed in the production of pottery by women of the Kabylia and Aures mountains. The primary trading partners are Italy, France, Spain, Brazil, the Netherlands, andfj the United States. Today there are more than thirty institutes of higher learning, with universities in a number of cities, including Algiers, Oran, Constantine, Annaba, and Tlemcen. In areas of the country with a stronger Arab influence, affiliations are based mostly on blood relations. The mosque is the Muslim house of worship.

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It borders Tunisia and Libya to the east; Niger, Mali, and Mauritania to the south; Morocco and Western Sahara to the west; and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Their tactics of bombing villages and torturing prisoners gained worldwide attention and was condemned by the United Nations and.S. Less than 1 percent are European. Independence did not bring much change in this realm. There is a range of observance among Algerian Muslims; rural people tend to hold more strictly to the traditional practices. The star, crescent, and the color green are all symbolic of the Islamic religion. Ahmed Ben Bella was declared premier. Best American Muslim Dating Sites Hamina

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Religious holidays are often celebrated with special foods. Most food produced is for local consumption; the most common crops include wheat, barley, corn, and teen sex webcam jyväskylä thai hieronta rice, as well as fruits and vegetables. Most of Algeria's workers are unskilled. Islam forms the basis not only of religious life in Algeria but also is a unifying force (both within the country and with other Arab nations creating for all believers a common ground that is both cultural and spiritual. Traditionally things were bought and sold by the barter method, and while this still exists, most trading today is done with cash.